The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy ISSN: 2377-908X
Professor Hong-Ming Liang, 梁弘明教授 Ph.D., Editor-in-Chief and Publisher, The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy ; Chief Editor, The Middle Ground Journal: World History and Global Studies .
The North Star Reports Staff:
Kathryn Marquis Hirsch, Managing Editor, History, Russian, Class of 2014. J.D., University of Minnesota Law School, Class of 2018.
Ellie Swanson, Assistant Managing Editor, English, Class of 2009. MA, Education. Wrenshall School District, MN.
Marin Ekstrom, Assistant Managing Editor, GCL, Russian, Class of 2015. BISS Teacher Training Institute, Beijing
Andrew Bailey, Assistant Editor, History, Poli Sci
Abigail Blonigen, Assistant Editor, English, Spanish, GCL
Ellery Bruns, Assistant Editor, English
Chris Rehkamp, Social Media Editor, GCL, Class of 2009
Ngawang Y. Gonsar, Senior Editor, Biology, Class of 2010. Masters of Biology, U of Minnesota – Duluth. Biology Instructor, Gustavus Adolphus
Brock Erdahl, Senior Editor, History, GCL, Poli Sci, Catholic Studies, French, Class of 2012
Jennifer Battcher, Senior Editor, History, Spanish, Concordia College – Moorhead, Class of 2012
Pamela Hartley, Senior Editor, International Relations, GCL, Economics and Poli Sci, Class of 2014
Laura Blasena, Senior Editor, Elementary and Spanish Education, Class of 2015
Megan Hennen, Senior Editor, GCL, Class of 2015
Srijita Kar, Senior Editor, Economics and Finance, Class of 2016
Katherine LaFleur, Senior Editor, GCL, Spanish, Class of 2016
Ada Luz Moreno Gomez, Senior Editor, History, GCL, Class of 2016
Maria Olivares Boscan, Senior Editor, GCL, Class of 2016
Jenna Algoo, Senior Editor, Biology and Pre-Med, Class of 2016
Jonia Gordon, Senior Editor, GCL, Class of 2016
Kyle Hellmann, Senior Editor, History, Political Science, Class of 2016
Rebecca Smith, Senior Editor, History, Education, Class of 2016
Ana Maria Camelo Vega, Senior Editor, Applied Economics, GCL, Class of 2017
Paul Schulzetenberg, Senior Editor, Biology, Philosophy, Class of 2017
Michaela Campbell, Senior Editor, Psychology, Political Science, Class of 2017
Karn Pederstuen, Senior Editor, Nursing, Class of 2017
Amy North, Senior Editor, Health Information Management, Class of 2017
Eleni Birhane, Senior Editor, GCL, Poli Sci, Management, Class of 2018
Matthew Breeze, Senior Editor, GCL, Poli Sci, Spanish, Class of 2018
Allison Brennhofer, Senior Editor, Humanities, Class of 2018
Thomas Landgren, Senior Editor, History, Class of 2018
Daniela Rojas Abramo, Senior Editor, Psychology, Class of 2018
Shayna Schafter, Senior Editor, Peace and Justice, Class of 2018
(c) 2012-present The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy http://NorthStarReports.org ISSN: 2377-908X The NSR is sponsored and published by Professor Hong-Ming Liang, NSR Student Editors and Writers. K-12 teachers, if you are using these reports for your classes, please contact editor-in-chief Professor Liang at HLIANG (at) css.edu
Please submit all articles to Professor Liang at HLIANG@CSS.EDU — submit articles as MS Word files, the photos should be as .jpg files — you must verify that you own the rights to the photos.
Please contact Professor Liang if you wish to write for The North Star Reports — HLIANG (at) css.edu
See also, our Facebook page with curated news articles at http://www.facebook.com/NorthStarReports
The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy (http://NorthStarReports.org) is a student edited and student authored open access publication centered around the themes of global and historical connections. Our abiding philosophy is that those of us who are fortunate enough to receive an education and to travel our planet are ethically bound to share our knowledge with those who cannot afford to do so. Therefore, creating virtual and actual communities of learning between college and K-12 classes are integral to our mission. In five semesters we have published 200 articles covering all habitable continents and a variety of topics ranging from history and politics, food and popular culture, to global inequities to complex identities. These articles are read by K-12 and college students. Our student editors and writers come from all parts of the campus, from Nursing to Biology, Physical Therapy to Business, and remarkably, many of our student editors and writers have long graduated from college. We also have writers and editors from other colleges and universities. In addition to our main site, we also curate a Facebook page dedicated to annotated news articles selected by our student editors (http://www.facebook.com/NorthStarReports). This is done by an all volunteer staff. We have a frugal cash budget, and we donate much of our time and talent to this project. The NSR is sponsored and published by Professor Hong-Ming Liang, NSR Student Editors and Writers.
For a brief summary, please see the American Historical Association’s Perspectives on History, at: http://www.historians.org/perspectives/issues/2013/1305/Opening-The-Middle-Ground-Journal.cfm
Professor Hong-Ming Liang, Ph.D., Editor-in-Chief and Publisher, The North Star Reports; Chief Editor, The Middle Ground Journal.
Kathryn Marquis Hirsch, Managing Editor, The North Star Reports. Eleni Birhane and Matthew Breeze, Assistant Managing editors, The North Star Reports.
(c) 2012-present The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy http://NorthStarReports.org ISSN: 2377-908X The NSR is sponsored and published by Professor Hong-Ming Liang, NSR Student Editors and Writers. See Masthead for our not-for-profit educational open- access policy. K-12 teachers, if you are using these reports for your classes, please contact editor-in-chief Professor Liang at HLIANG (at) css.edu
Contributors are solely responsible for the opinions, analyses, and conclusions of their essays. The editors disclaim any responsibility for the opinions and analyses of the contributors and those who submit comments.
Copyright & Permissions
The North Star Reports grants open-access to all not-for-profit and educational institutions, provided that 1) the piece(s) are reproduced and/or linked in their entirety, without editing or alterations, 2) full and written/printed credit is given to The North Star Reports and to the author(s), and 3) that such a reproduction is not for a fee of any kind. Teachers and students are warmly invited and encouraged to use this journal in their classes. We encourage you to please let the Chief Editor know when you reproduce our work on an open-access basis.
If you wish to link to anything in The North Star Reports, please inform the Editor-in-Chief and Publisher.
Each issue is copyrighted as a periodical. Individual authors retain the rights to their own works; by submitting their work to NSR they grant permission to The North Star Reports to include said works as part of the contracted issue of the journal, and as part of a permanently archived electronic database.
Please include your full name and institutional affiliation when you comment. The North Star Reports reserves the right to refuse to post comments for any reason.
We have made every effort to educate our student writers on the importance of respecting intellectual property rights. If one of our student writers has mistakenly submitted an image that is not open sourced, please email the Editor-in-Chief and we will remove the image(s) immediately.