Author Archives: Middle Ground Journal

About Middle Ground Journal

The Middle Ground Journal: World History and Global Studies, Professor Hong-Ming Liang, Ph.D., Chief Editor. We are housed at The College of St. Scholastica and published by the Midwest World History Association. For more information on The Middle Ground Journal, please visit https://www.facebook.com/middlegroundjournal and http://www2.css.edu/app/depts/HIS/historyjournal/index.cfm For a recent article on The Middle Ground's undergraduate interns' excellent work, published in the American Historical Association's Perspectives on History, see: http://www.historians.org/perspectives/issues/2013/1305/Opening-The-Middle-Ground-Journal.cfm Please address all inquiries to the journal's chief editor Professor Hong-Ming Liang at HLIANG@CSS.EDU

Our Elders: Our Links to the Past — The North Star Reports – by Tasha Engesser. Sponsored by The College of St. Scholastica and The Middle Ground Journal

Our Elders: Our Links to the Past — The North Star Reports – by Tasha Engesser. Sponsored by The College of St. Scholastica and The Middle Ground Journal

Tasha2

During the spring semester of 2014 I was privileged to be assigned to write an end of the semester project with a greater purpose than just getting a grade. The assignment was to research my own family and history and to connect it to the class. The truth is, most papers, finals, and projects we work tirelessly on in high school and college are forgotten about once they are turned in, but this project was much more personal and lasting.

Throughout all of my research and interviews with family members, several points stood out. The first point is the importance of storytelling in my family, the second is the prominent role my family plays in my life, and the third is the realization that my elders have such interesting personal histories I often forget about.

I have grown up on being told stories. Sometimes these stories were fictional and other times they were nonfictional anecdotes (usually with an element or two of fiction added for effect). The stories I grew up on taught me life lessons, entertained me, and gave me a great love for stories in general. I think this one of the greatest gifts given to me because it allowed me to become the avid reader that I am and helped influence my public speaking style, both of which helped me thrive in school.

I should have known all along how important a role family plays in my life, especially with all the stories I was told about them, but I continue to realize their importance more and more each day. This past year has been one of the toughest times for me because I was away from my family. This project allowed me to feel connected again. I gathered during this project that family was one thing that no matter what else happened I could fall back on. Throughout the school year I have surrounded myself with family photos so as to feel at home and comfortable in this new place, and I found that my family does the same. I received a picture of my grandma’s coffee table that she sits beside daily. On it rest pictures of my aunt, mother, and sister’s weddings. I noticed a family trend of taking group photos whenever the extended family gets together so that we can always remember the day.

Tasha1

Before this project, I would look at my family photos and see only the people in them, but now I see so much more. The final point I realized through my research is the one I hope will stick with me ’til the end of my life because it is such a great realization: my grandparents and other elders are such impressive people. I have always known this but haven’t really given it much thought until this project. I never knew how much my parents and grandparents did before they were my parents and grandparents. I think many people forget to acknowledge that these people that we think of as old and traveled were once young and inexperienced like us. It is quite marvelous to be able to learn some of what my elders did back when they were young.

I hope that the new information and the insight I have collected and shared throughout this semester give me a new sense of direction with my family. I hope that I can continue to learn about who my family members were and are outside of just being my family. It truly is a gift to me to be able to share these stories of my family’s past. [From Professor Liang’s 2014 World History II class.]

Please contact Professor Liang if you wish to write for The North Star Reports — HLIANG (at) css.edu

See also, our Facebook page with curated news articles at http://www.facebook.com/NorthStarReports

The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy, The Middle Ground Journal and The College of St. Scholastica’s collaborative outreach program with K-12 classes around the world. We acknowledge North Star Academy of Duluth, Minnesota as our inaugural partner school, and the flagship of our program. We also welcome Duluth East High School and other schools around the world. The North Star Reports has flourished since 2012. For a brief summary, please see the American Historical Association’s Perspectives on History, at:

http://www.historians.org/perspectives/issues/2013/1305/Opening-The-Middle-Ground-Journal.cfm

The North Star Reports publishes edited essays from our students, particularly from those who are currently stationed, or will soon be stationed abroad. Students have reported from Mongolia, Southern China, Shanghai, northeastern China, The Netherlands, Tanzania, Ireland, England, Finland, Russia, and Haiti. We also have students developing reviews of books, documentaries, and films, projects on historical memory, the price individuals pay during tragic global conflicts, and analysis of current events from around the world. We will post their dispatches, and report on their interactions with the North Star Reports students and teachers.

We thank The Department of History and Politics and the School of Arts and Letters of The College of St. Scholastica for their generous financial support for The North Star Reports and The Middle Ground Journal.

Hong-Ming Liang, Ph.D., Chief Editor, The Middle Ground Journal, Associate Professor of History and Politics, The College of St. Scholastica, Duluth, MN, USA

(c) 2012-present The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy http://NorthStarReports.org The NSR is sponsored by The Middle Ground Journal and The College of St. Scholastica. See Masthead for our not-for-profit educational open- access policy. K-12 teachers, if you are using these reports for your classes, please contact chief editor Professor Liang at HLIANG (at) css.edu

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Filed under History, Professor Hong-Ming Liang, Professor Liang's Classes

Kultura con ‘k’: Discovering a City’s Soul — The North Star Reports – by Katherine LaFleur. Sponsored by The College of St. Scholastica and The Middle Ground Journal

A special series. Kultura con ‘k’: Discovering a City’s Soul — The North Star Reports – by Katherine LaFleur. Sponsored by The College of St. Scholastica and The Middle Ground Journal

kultura 1 IMG_5835
[This news stand is an example I pass nearly every day, it’s not unique in the sense that it has been tagged but it caught my eye.]

You can buy the book or take the tour: viewing all of the landmarks everyone wants to visit and taking every photo to capture it for yourself, but when it comes right down to it if you want to get to know a city and its people you’re going to have to leave the beaten path. My dad always taught me to break from the crowd (of tourists) when traveling and follow the music: find the people and be polite, ask them about themselves and actually learn something worth taking home with you. While abroad I’ve certainly hit all of the big tourist-y spots that I could, but in general I try to avoid them to get a better feel for a city’s true personality by searching out the more unaffected parts of the city.

kultura 2 IMG_5291[My roommate, Zoe, marveling at the creations on this door we found one of the first nights in Barcelona.]

In a previous post (Common Catalonian Cuisine) I mentioned the idea of different kinds of culture: Culture with a capital “C”, culture with a little “c” and culture with a “k”. What my dad always wanted me to look for was culture with a “c”: the everyday living that people do in their home- in which you are a stranger and unaccustomed. What caught my interest from the start of this program, though, is the culture with “k”, the alternative. Kultura in Spain, throughout Europe and the rest of the world, is that which you won’t find in a museum. Often, the meaning is lost on us because we lack the understanding to fully comprehend, or we simply overlook it because it isn’t listed in the pages of our Lonely Planet reader.

kultura 3 IMG_5853[Sometimes I’m really really impressed with what someone has done, like the skulls pictured here, with the words “vida” and “mort” incorporated it shows life and death as two sides of the same coin, er, skull.]

Graffiti has always captured my interest. I really don’t see myself as any sort of artist so I enviously enjoy works of art that others produce. Growing up in Duluth and watching the trains come in and out of the city I would look at the various tags on each car and marvel at the different colors and styles that each boasted. When my friends and I were old enough to drive ourselves around town we explored the Graffiti Graveyard and I was astounded by what people were able to do with little more than spray paint. In Barcelona, from the very first day, I was astounded by how much graffiti there is. The sentiment of many people in Spain is that the city is their property as citizens, one professor explained, so it isn’t at all unusual to see spray painted scribbles or murals that express someone’s views on a bench, a newspaper kiosk, or the side of a building; but for an American coming in with a very different lens, I was a bit surprised at the abundance and normality of it all.

kultura 4 IMG_5976[Not only in Barcelona, but all over Spain and the rest of the globe you can see examples of graffiti reacting to the political climate of the time, such as this piece seen in Figueres, Spain.]

In Barcelona, and all over the world, graffiti is used to tell a story. More than just the individual tags, graffiti is used to relate history, to express political unrest among the people, or to exhibit a chosen aesthetic by creating pieces that play with the façade of their canvas. The sentiment of many people in Spain is that the city is their property as citizens, one professor explained, so it isn’t at all unusual to see spray painted scribbles that express one person’s views on a bench, a newspaper kiosk, or the side of a building- but for an American coming in with a very different lens, I was a bit surprised at the abundance and normality of it all.

kultura 5 IMG_5993[And of course, within Barcelona the inefficiency of the governing bodies has many a citizen frustrated and one obvious outlet to express that frustration is art.]

It takes a bit of work to get oneself accustomed to any given kultura, but once you have a bit of insight to a place’s history and the story of its people it’s as if you’ve been handed a key and the lights have all been turned on. The scribbles on the park benches and the murals you pass each day are now deciphered through a better understanding, and by gaining this consciousness you add another lens to your collection.

Please contact Professor Liang if you wish to write for The North Star Reports — HLIANG (at) css.edu

See also, our Facebook page with curated news articles at http://www.facebook.com/NorthStarReports

The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy, The Middle Ground Journal and The College of St. Scholastica’s collaborative outreach program with K-12 classes around the world. We acknowledge North Star Academy of Duluth, Minnesota as our inaugural partner school, and the flagship of our program. We also welcome Duluth East High School and other schools around the world. The North Star Reports has flourished since 2012. For a brief summary, please see the American Historical Association’s Perspectives on History, at:

http://www.historians.org/perspectives/issues/2013/1305/Opening-The-Middle-Ground-Journal.cfm

The North Star Reports publishes edited essays from our students, particularly from those who are currently stationed, or will soon be stationed abroad. Students have reported from Mongolia, Southern China, Shanghai, northeastern China, The Netherlands, Tanzania, Ireland, England, Finland, Russia, and Haiti. We also have students developing reviews of books, documentaries, and films, projects on historical memory, the price individuals pay during tragic global conflicts, and analysis of current events from around the world. We will post their dispatches, and report on their interactions with the North Star Reports students and teachers.

We thank The Department of History and Politics and the School of Arts and Letters of The College of St. Scholastica for their generous financial support for The North Star Reports and The Middle Ground Journal.

Hong-Ming Liang, Ph.D., Chief Editor, The Middle Ground Journal, Associate Professor of History and Politics, The College of St. Scholastica, Duluth, MN, USA

(c) 2012-present The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy http://NorthStarReports.org The NSR is sponsored by The Middle Ground Journal and The College of St. Scholastica. See Masthead for our not-for-profit educational open- access policy. K-12 teachers, if you are using these reports for your classes, please contact chief editor Professor Liang at HLIANG (at) css.edu

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Filed under Katherine LaFleur, North Star Student Editors, Professor Hong-Ming Liang

Food, Family and World History — The North Star Reports – by Tayler Boelk. Sponsored by The College of St. Scholastica and The Middle Ground Journal

Food, Family and World History — The North Star Reports – by Tayler Boelk. Sponsored by The College of St. Scholastica and The Middle Ground Journal

taylerfood1

When I was first seeking a theme for my family project, I struggled. It was not until about half way through the project that I realized how prominent cooking was in my family. Making homemade food has always been important to us. Even today, we make many homemade foods such as noodles, jams, salsas, fritters and breads. The more research I did into family traditions, the more often food came up.

taylerfood2
One of my favorite things to do with my family is bake homemade bread. Because we have to wait for the bread to rise, it has always been an all-day event. We make as many loaves of bread as we have pans, including some cinnamon bread. The youngest children are taught to make their own loaves in the smaller pans while others take turns making and eating fritters.

taylerfood3
Fritters have always been a favorite of mine growing up. I thought fritters were a food unique to my family, but as I watched more and more presentations, I realized that an incredible number of people with Scandinavian heritage make the same food by a different name. My family’s fritters are another family’s “dough god” and another’s “fry bread” but essentially it’s just a donut. My family’s version of the fritter is homemade bread dough fried in oil and topped with sugar.

taylerfood4
Learning that so many others have this same food in their family really gave me a way to connect with other members of my class. We may have come from all different backgrounds but there are still things tying us together. This is one of the amazing things about food. Yes, we need it to survive, but it is also a mechanism of bringing people together. It is no coincidence that each of the most important holidays in one’s family usually have a dish or two associated with it. Many people in my community have the usual Thanksgiving turkey or birthday cake but one traditional food in my family that I think is pretty great is our homemade noodle soup. taylerfood5
A few times a year, usually around bread-making days, my family makes homemade noodles to eat in soup. For the noodles, we take flour, salt, and eggs and mix it all together. Then we roll it out in a thin layer and let it dry. When it’s dry we cut it and boil it like you would any other noodles. Aside from the noodles themselves, the soup has no actual recipe. In the past, it would be considered “a poor man’s soup:” the kind of soup to which you added random vegetables and meats, if any were available, into a big pot and that would be dinner. I find this both humorous and endearing because now it seems to be a special treat. It is funny how things like this change throughout history, and it truly makes me appreciate the access to things like meat that I have today.

taylerfood6
The biggest lesson these foods have taught me is how important it is to carry on traditions. Even when families gain a higher economic status, these traditions are carried on. Maybe it reminds them of their childhood, or maybe they never lose their belief that no food should be wasted; in any case, I am thankful that the recipes for these foods have continued to be taught generation after generation. The most important element of a family is what brings them together— in my family, this is homemade food. [From Professor Liang’s 2014 World History II class.]

taylerfood7

Please contact Professor Liang if you wish to write for The North Star Reports — HLIANG (at) css.edu

See also, our Facebook page with curated news articles at http://www.facebook.com/NorthStarReports

The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy, The Middle Ground Journal and The College of St. Scholastica’s collaborative outreach program with K-12 classes around the world. We acknowledge North Star Academy of Duluth, Minnesota as our inaugural partner school, and the flagship of our program. We also welcome Duluth East High School and other schools around the world. The North Star Reports has flourished since 2012. For a brief summary, please see the American Historical Association’s Perspectives on History, at:

http://www.historians.org/perspectives/issues/2013/1305/Opening-The-Middle-Ground-Journal.cfm

The North Star Reports publishes edited essays from our students, particularly from those who are currently stationed, or will soon be stationed abroad. Students have reported from Mongolia, Southern China, Shanghai, northeastern China, The Netherlands, Tanzania, Ireland, England, Finland, Russia, and Haiti. We also have students developing reviews of books, documentaries, and films, projects on historical memory, the price individuals pay during tragic global conflicts, and analysis of current events from around the world. We will post their dispatches, and report on their interactions with the North Star Reports students and teachers.

We thank The Department of History and Politics and the School of Arts and Letters of The College of St. Scholastica for their generous financial support for The North Star Reports and The Middle Ground Journal.

Hong-Ming Liang, Ph.D., Chief Editor, The Middle Ground Journal, Associate Professor of History and Politics, The College of St. Scholastica, Duluth, MN, USA

(c) 2012-present The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy http://NorthStarReports.org The NSR is sponsored by The Middle Ground Journal and The College of St. Scholastica. See Masthead for our not-for-profit educational open- access policy. K-12 teachers, if you are using these reports for your classes, please contact chief editor Professor Liang at HLIANG (at) css.edu

34 Comments

Filed under North Star Student Editors, Professor Hong-Ming Liang, Tayler Boelk

Free-Willed – Family and World History — The North Star Reports – by Johanna Jurgens. Sponsored by The College of St. Scholastica and The Middle Ground Journal

Free-Willed – Family and World History — The North Star Reports – by Johanna Jurgens. Sponsored by The College of St. Scholastica and The Middle Ground Journal

Brazil_topo[http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Brazil_topo.jpg]

Families and cultures throughout the centuries are not that different from how they are today. I’ve found many connections between my family and thousand-year-old cultures and realized that every person has to adapt to something new.

My Italian grandfather – my mother’s father – immigrated to the South of Brazil around the beginning of the 1900s. The South was chosen because of its colder weather, which is more similar to the weather in Europe than that of northern Brazil, so it would be easier for my grandfather to adapt. However, my grandfather was not the only one to immigrate to Brazil; many families from all over the world, especially Germany, Japan, Italy, Portugal and Spain, were seeking a better life. The largest influx of immigrants settled in Brazil from 1872 to 1972. People immigrated mostly because overpopulation and industrialization in their home countries resulted in shortages of jobs. Since many of these people were farmers, they moved to the United States or Brazil due to the vast amount of unoccupied land following Brazil’s independence in 1822 and abolition of slavery in 1888. Brazil needed farmers to come to work and help the country rise economically since there were no more slaves to do the farm work. Many started working on farms and soon had enough money to buy their own land, and that’s what my grandfather did. Much like the United States, immigrants comprised much of the Brazilian population.

My grandfather was able to buy many acres of land and create his own vineyard. In the process of all this, my grandfather met my gypsy grandmother. My grandmother had to adapt to my grandfather’s customs. She began working on the farm, and from what I heard, she was usually the one who gave the orders. She even made her own ritual with the other women who worked at the farm. At the end of every week they would get together to dance, listen to music, and drink chimarrão (a drink similar to tea). She also learned how to make exceptionally good Italian food, and was always a great contributor to the family reunions which usually happened every weekend after a hard week of work. Similar to the Greek symposium, my family would cook a lot of food and eat for hours and hours. My family has always drunk a lot of wine, so they always had plenty. But unlike the Greek symposium, women participated in the reunion as much as the men did.

During the family reunions and family meals during the week, they ate typical Italian food. It was all handmade spaghetti, polenta, bread, cheese, tortellini, gnocchi, cappelletti soup, crostoli, and many other kinds of food. My whole family had a part in cooking and it was an excuse for the family to spend more time together. Recipes were learned from our parents or grandparents. It was much different from today, when we usually learn how to cook by recipe books, which I believe has destroyed the family’s time together.

For my family, it has always been considered an art to make food taste the best you can. Food has always played an important role for my family because it was always a good excuse for gatherings, and eating and loving food is a trait we share. Food has played an important role in most cultures; its importance throughout history is clear.

My family has always been free-willed much like the people of the Etruscan civilization, where women were seen as equal in power to men and were given the same rights. I’ve realized in my family there were no roles which different sexes had to play; my family has always done what they thought was best. My grandmother is a perfect example– she went to live with the gypsies just because she wanted to. But because. At first I did not understood why my free-willed relatives were often seen as crazy but now I do. By listening to our hearts and not following society’s standards we are bound to be seen that way. It’s a good thing we don’t mind. [From Professor Liang’s 2014 World History II class.]


Please contact Professor Liang if you wish to write for The North Star Reports — HLIANG (at) css.edu

See also, our Facebook page with curated news articles at http://www.facebook.com/NorthStarReports

The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy, The Middle Ground Journal and The College of St. Scholastica’s collaborative outreach program with K-12 classes around the world. We acknowledge North Star Academy of Duluth, Minnesota as our inaugural partner school, and the flagship of our program. We also welcome Duluth East High School and other schools around the world. The North Star Reports has flourished since 2012. For a brief summary, please see the American Historical Association’s Perspectives on History, at:

http://www.historians.org/perspectives/issues/2013/1305/Opening-The-Middle-Ground-Journal.cfm

The North Star Reports publishes edited essays from our students, particularly from those who are currently stationed, or will soon be stationed abroad. Students have reported from Mongolia, Southern China, Shanghai, northeastern China, The Netherlands, Tanzania, Ireland, England, Finland, Russia, and Haiti. We also have students developing reviews of books, documentaries, and films, projects on historical memory, the price individuals pay during tragic global conflicts, and analysis of current events from around the world. We will post their dispatches, and report on their interactions with the North Star Reports students and teachers.

We thank The Department of History and Politics and the School of Arts and Letters of The College of St. Scholastica for their generous financial support for The North Star Reports and The Middle Ground Journal.

Hong-Ming Liang, Ph.D., Chief Editor, The Middle Ground Journal, Associate Professor of History and Politics, The College of St. Scholastica, Duluth, MN, USA

(c) 2012-present The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy http://NorthStarReports.org The NSR is sponsored by The Middle Ground Journal and The College of St. Scholastica. See Masthead for our not-for-profit educational open- access policy. K-12 teachers, if you are using these reports for your classes, please contact chief editor Professor Liang at HLIANG (at) css.edu

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Filed under History, Professor Hong-Ming Liang, Professor Liang's Classes

Studying Family and World History – The North Star Reports – by Jimmy Lovrien. Sponsored by The College of St. Scholastica and The Middle Ground Journal

Studying Family and World History – The North Star Reports – by Jimmy Lovrien. Sponsored by The College of St. Scholastica and The Middle Ground Journal

640px-Minnesota_in_United_States.svg[http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Minnesota_in_United_States.svg]

“Wow, the story of my family is really the story of Minnesota,” I proudly thought to myself. With a collection of family stories regarding farming in southern Minnesota, logging in northeastern Minnesota, and some of the first women to graduate from the University of Minnesota, the Lovrien family history portrayed Minnesota’s past in a storybook style.

As an individual studying history and journalism, I quickly saw a large flaw in presenting history this way: I did not include my ancestors’ role in oppressing Native Americans.
The loss of land and subsequent warfare aimed at Native Americans completely corresponds with the westward migration by my ancestors. When farming during the summer wasn’t enough, agriculturalists moved north to log during the winters. I was told, “Dad couldn’t make money on the farm in the winter. He couldn’t work here in the winter. So he would go up in the woods, up in the North, and work there.” The efforts of early settlers to homestead every inch of what is now Minnesota forced Native Americans off the land they had held for thousands of years preceding.

When Native Americans fought for their land, the United States government fought to suppress them. The original settlers in my family joined the US’ efforts and were unfortunately praised in their obituaries for doing so; however, their children and grandchildren realized these faults and denounced these actions. Luckily, my dad does not withhold this rather troubling information as he realizes most people will choose to forget and push the disturbing history behind them.

JLFamilyGrandma[Picture: My grandmother and her University of Minnesota friends fishing during the summer.]

Women in Education

Prior to my research, I knew my grandmother had attended the University of Minnesota in the ’40s, an unusual feat for women at this time. Through discussion with my dad, I also learned my great-grandmother and several of her sisters attended college in the 1910s and early 1920s, even more remarkable for the time. The expectation at the time was for women to marry; if they pursued college, this was usually faced opposition by males. In a 1924 New York Times article entitled “Why They Quit School,” the University of Minnesota registrar stated “it’s a ‘fallacy’ to believe that young women, even while they are striving for an education, do not constantly have matrimony as an object in mind”- exhibiting the perceptions held against women in college.

On my maternal side of the family, my grandparents did not receive any college education. Because the expectation to attend college was absent, my mother and her siblings had to forge their own means of pursuing higher education. Although my mom is not the eldest sister, she was the first female in her family to earn a four-year degree. This opened the door for her younger sisters and inspired them to do the same.

By the time my sister graduated from high school it was largely expected she attend college, signaling society’s change in perception of women in education. Within three generations major shifts could be found in how society viewed two pivotal issues in the history of my family and Minnesota. [From Professor Liang’s 2014 World History II class.]


Please contact Professor Liang if you wish to write for The North Star Reports — HLIANG (at) css.edu

See also, our Facebook page with curated news articles at http://www.facebook.com/NorthStarReports

The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy, The Middle Ground Journal and The College of St. Scholastica’s collaborative outreach program with K-12 classes around the world. We acknowledge North Star Academy of Duluth, Minnesota as our inaugural partner school, and the flagship of our program. We also welcome Duluth East High School and other schools around the world. The North Star Reports has flourished since 2012. For a brief summary, please see the American Historical Association’s Perspectives on History, at:

http://www.historians.org/perspectives/issues/2013/1305/Opening-The-Middle-Ground-Journal.cfm

The North Star Reports publishes edited essays from our students, particularly from those who are currently stationed, or will soon be stationed abroad. Students have reported from Mongolia, Southern China, Shanghai, northeastern China, The Netherlands, Tanzania, Ireland, England, Finland, Russia, and Haiti. We also have students developing reviews of books, documentaries, and films, projects on historical memory, the price individuals pay during tragic global conflicts, and analysis of current events from around the world. We will post their dispatches, and report on their interactions with the North Star Reports students and teachers.

We thank The Department of History and Politics for its generous financial support for The North Star Reports and The Middle Ground Journal.

Hong-Ming Liang, Ph.D., Chief Editor, The Middle Ground Journal, Associate Professor of History and Politics, The College of St. Scholastica, Duluth, MN, USA

(c) 2012-present The North Star Reports: Global Citizenship and Digital Literacy http://NorthStarReports.org The NSR is sponsored by The Middle Ground Journal and The College of St. Scholastica. See Masthead for our not-for-profit educational open- access policy. K-12 teachers, if you are using these reports for your classes, please contact chief editor Professor Liang at HLIANG (at) css.edu

37 Comments

Filed under History, North Star Student Editors, Professor Hong-Ming Liang, Professor Liang's Classes